New! Nizami Gencevinin Isgendername Poemasinin Tehlili
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New! Analysis of Nizami Ganjavi's poem \"Isgendername\"
\"Isgendername\" is the fifth and final poem in the \"Khamsa\" collection by Nizami Ganjavi, a great Azerbaijani poet and thinker. The poem was written in Persian language between 1200 and 1203. It reflects the social problems that Nizami raised in his lyrical poems and other works. \"Isgendername\" is a historical-romantic poem that can also be called an epic. [^1^] It consists of two parts: the first part is called \"Sharafname\", and the second part is called \"Iqbalname\". \"Sharafname\" is dedicated to Nusrat al-Din Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, one of the Atabegs of Azerbaijan, and \"Iqbalname\" is dedicated to Malik Izz al-Din, the ruler of Mosul. \"Isgendername\" has 10460 verses, of which 6835 are in \"Sharafname\" and 3625 are in \"Iqbalname\". The poem is written in the meter of mutaqareb maqsur (abbreviated) in Arabic prosody. \"Isgendername\" had a strong influence on the literature of the Near Eastern peoples with its high idea and artistic value. Amir Khusrow Dehlavi's \"Ayineyi-Isgenderi\", Abdurrahman Jami's \"Khirednameyi-Isgenderi\", Alisher Navoi's \"Saddi-Isgenderi\" and other works can be mentioned among the works written under the influence of Nizami's \"Isgendername\". Nizami's poem also influenced some works that are not related to Alexander, such as Hatifi's \"Teymurname\". That influence was on the heroic motifs of \"Teymurname\" and on the didactic aspect of Saadi's \"Bustan\". The strength of ethical ideas in \"Isgendername\" and the special attention paid to this issue in Eastern literature were among the reasons for liking the poem.
In this article, we will analyze the content, characters, themes, sources, and literary features of Nizami's masterpiece. We will also explore its translations, cultural impact, and artistic representations.
\"Isgendername\" consists of two parts: \"Sharafname\" and \"Iqbalname\". Each part has an introduction that includes sections such as invocation, praise, dedication, reason for writing, and attitude to poetic art. Usually, a saqiname or mugenniname is given at the beginning of each story, followed by a rule that shows the sources used by the poet. After describing different versions of stories about the origin of the hero, Alexander's birth, education years, accession to power and acting as a just ruler are narrated. Various events that reflect his leadership, wisdom and prophethood are given throughout the work.
\"Sharafname\" tells about Alexander's military campaigns against Darius III, the king of Persia; Porus, the king of India; and Qaydafa (Gog), the king of China. It also describes his encounters with various peoples, lands, wonders, and secrets. Some of the episodes in this part are:
Alexander's dream about his father Philip's death and his succession to the throne.
Alexander's letter to Darius asking him to surrender or face war.
Alexander's victory over Darius at the Battle of Issus and his capture of Darius' family.
Alexander's visit to Jerusalem and his recognition as a prophet by Jewish priests.
Alexander's meeting with Queen Nushaba (Candace) of Ethiopia and his marriage to her.
Alexander's crossing of the Oxus river and his encounter with Khizr, a mysterious sage who guides him to the Fountain of Life.
Alexander's invasion of India and his battle with Porus.
Alexander's journey to China and his confrontation with Qaydafa.
Alexander's construction of iron gates to block Qaydafa's army from invading other lands. aa16f39245